Friday, 14 August 2009

How Indonesian People Get Nobel Prize in The Future

Central for Research and Development for Winning
Nobel Prize in Physics at Indonesia

Nobel Fisika Indonesia

"Ilmuwan hanya menetapkan dua hal, yaitu kebenaran dan ketulusan, mereka menetapkan atas dirinya dan atas para ilmuwan lain."
~Erwin S.~

"Tuhan Menggunakan Matematika yang Indah dalam Menciptakan Dunia"
~Paul A.M. Dirac~

Nobel Prize® medal - registered trademark of the Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"
Erwin Schrödinger Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
Erwin Schrödinger Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
half 1/2 of the prize half 1/2 of the prize
Austria United Kingdom
Berlin University
Berlin, Germany
University of Cambridge
Cambridge, United Kingdom
b. 1887
d. 1961
b. 1902
d. 1984
Titles, data and places given above refer to the time of the award.
Photos: Copyright © The Nobel Foundation

Nobel Lecture

Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1933

The Fundamental Idea of Wave Mechanics

The Lecture in Text Format
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Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1933
From Nobel Lectures, Physics 1922-1941, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1965
In order to read the text you need Acrobat Reader.

Nobel Lecture

Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1933

Theory of Electrons and Positrons

The Lecture in Text Format
Pdf 48 kB »
Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1933
From Nobel Lectures, Physics 1922-1941, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1965
In order to read the text you need Acrobat Reader.

Erwin Schrödinger

Born Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger
12 August 1887(1887-08-12)
Erdberg, Vienna, Austria-Hungary
Died 4 January 1961(1961-01-04) (aged 73)
Vienna, Austria
Citizenship Austria, Germany, Ireland
Nationality Austrian, later Irish
Fields Physics
Institutions University of Breslau
University of Zürich
Humboldt University of Berlin
University of Oxford
University of Graz
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
Ghent University
Alma mater University of Vienna
Doctoral advisor Friedrich Hasenöhrl
Other academic advisors Franz S. Exner
Friedrich Hasenöhrl
Notable students Linus Pauling
Felix Bloch
Brendan Scaife
Known for Schrödinger equation
Schrödinger's cat
Schrödinger method
Schrödinger functional
Schrödinger picture
Schrödinger-Newton equations
Schrödinger field
Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation
Schrödinger logics
Cat state
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physics (1933)
Spouse Annemarie Bertel (1920-1965)
Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria.
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (German pronunciation: [ˈɛʁviːn ˈʃʁøːdɪŋɐ]; 12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961) was a physicist and theoretical biologist who was one of the fathers of quantum mechanics, and is famed for a number of important contributions to physics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933. In 1935, after extensive correspondence with personal friend Albert Einstein, he proposed the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.


The philosophical issues raised by Schrödinger's cat are still debated today and remains his most enduring legacy in popular science, while Schrödinger's equation is his most enduring legacy at a more technical level. The huge crater Schrödinger, on the far side of the Moon is named after him. The Erwin Schrödinger International Institute for Mathematical Physics was established in Vienna in 1993.

See also

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac

Born Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
8 August 1902(1902-08-08)
Bristol, England
Died 20 October 1984(1984-10-20) (aged 82)
Tallahassee, Florida, USA
Nationality Switzerland (1902–1919)
United Kingdom (1919–1984)
Fields Physics (theoretical)
Institutions University of Cambridge
Florida State University
Alma mater University of Bristol
University of Cambridge
Doctoral advisor Ralph Fowler
Doctoral students Homi Bhabha
Harish Chandra Mehta
Dennis Sciama
Behram Kurşunoğlu
John Polkinghorne
Known for Dirac equation
Dirac comb
Dirac delta function
Fermi–Dirac statistics
Dirac sea
Dirac spinor
Dirac measure
Bra-ket notation
Dirac adjoint
Dirac large numbers hypothesis
Dirac fermion
Dirac string
Dirac algebra
Dirac operator
Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force
Dirac bracket
Fermi–Dirac integral
Negative probability
Dirac Picture
Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Equation
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physics (1933)
Copley Medal (1952)
Max Planck Medal (1952)
He is the stepfather of Gabriel Andrew Dirac.
Quantum mechanics
\Delta x\, \Delta p \ge \frac{\hbar}{2}
Uncertainty principle
Mathematical formulations
v · d · e
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (play /dɪˈræk/ di-rak; 8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. He held the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and spent the last fourteen years of his life at Florida State University.
Among other discoveries, he formulated the Dirac equation, which describes the behaviour of fermions, and predicted the existence of antimatter.
Dirac shared the Nobel Prize in physics for 1933 with Erwin Schrödinger, "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory."[1]


Dirac noticed an analogy between the Poisson brackets of classical mechanics and the recently proposed quantization rules in Werner Heisenberg's matrix formulation of quantum mechanics. This observation allowed Dirac to obtain the quantization rules in a novel and more illuminating manner. For this work, published in 1926, he received a Ph.D. from Cambridge.

In 1928, building on 2x2 spin matrices which he discovered independently (Abraham Pais quoted Dirac as saying "I believe I got these (matrices) independently of Pauli and possibly Pauli got these independently of me")[19] of Wolfgang Pauli's work on non-relativistic spin systems, he proposed the Dirac equation as a relativistic equation of motion for the wavefunction of the electron.[20] This work led Dirac to predict the existence of the positron, the electron's antiparticle, which he interpreted in terms of what came to be called the Dirac sea.[21] The positron was observed by Carl Anderson in 1932. Dirac's equation also contributed to explaining the origin of quantum spin as a relativistic phenomenon.

The necessity of fermions i.e. matter being created and destroyed in Enrico Fermi's 1934 theory of beta decay, however, led to a reinterpretation of Dirac's equation as a "classical" field equation for any point particle of spin ħ/2, itself subject to quantization conditions involving anti-commutators. Thus reinterpreted, in 1934 by Werner Heisenberg, as a (quantum) field equation accurately describing all elementary matter particles- today quarks and leptons – this Dirac field equation is as central to theoretical physics as the Maxwell, Yang-Mills and Einstein field equations. Dirac is regarded as the founder of quantum electrodynamics, being the first to use that term. He also introduced the idea of vacuum polarization in the early 1930s. This work was key to the development of quantum mechanics by the next generation of theorists, and in particular Schwinger, Feynman, Sin-Itiro Tomonaga and Dyson in their formulation of quantum electrodynamics.

Dirac's Principles of Quantum Mechanics, published in 1930, is a landmark in the history of science. It quickly became one of the standard textbooks on the subject and is still used today. In that book, Dirac incorporated the previous work of Werner Heisenberg on matrix mechanics and of Erwin Schrödinger on wave mechanics into a single mathematical formalism that associates measurable quantities to operators acting on the Hilbert space of vectors that describe the state of a physical system. The book also introduced the delta function. Following his 1939 article,[22] he also included the bra-ket notation in the third edition of his book,[23] thereby contributing to its universal use nowadays.

In 1933, following his 1931 paper on magnetic monopoles, Dirac showed that the existence of a single magnetic monopole in the universe would suffice to explain the observed quantization of electrical charge. In 1975,[24] 1982,[25] and 2009[26][27][28] intriguing results suggested the possible detection of magnetic monopoles, but there is, to date, no direct evidence for their existence.

Dirac was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge from 1932 to 1969. In 1937, he proposed a speculative cosmological model based on the so-called large numbers hypothesis. During World War II, he conducted important theoretical and experimental research on uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge.

Dirac's quantum electrodynamics made predictions that were – more often than not – infinite and therefore unacceptable. A workaround known as renormalization was developed, but Dirac never accepted this. "I must say that I am very dissatisfied with the situation," he said in 1975, "because this so-called 'good theory' does involve neglecting infinities which appear in its equations, neglecting them in an arbitrary way. This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it is small – not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it!"[29] His refusal to accept renormalization, resulted in his work on the subject moving increasingly out of the mainstream. However, from his once rejected notes he managed to work on putting quantum electrodynamics on "logical foundations" based on Hamiltonian formalism that he formulated. He found a rather novel way of deriving the anomalous magnetic moment "Schwinger term" and also the Lamb shift, afresh, using the Heisenberg picture and without using the joining method used by Weisskopf and French, the two pioneers of modern QED, Schwinger and Feynman, in 1963. That was two years before the Tomonaga-Schwinger-Feynman QED was given formal recognition by an award of the Nobel Prize for physics. Weisskopf and French (FW) were the first to obtain the correct result for the Lamb shift and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. At first FW results did not agree with the incorrect but independent results of Feynman and Schwinger (Schweber SS 1994 "QED and the men who made it: Dyson,Feynman,Schwinger and Tomonaga", Princeton :PUP). The 1963–1964 lectures Dirac gave on quantum field theory at Yeshiva University were published in 1966 as the Belfer Graduate School of Science, Monograph Series Number, 3. After having relocated to Florida in order to be near his elder daughter, Mary, Dirac spent his last fourteen years (of both life and physics research) at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida and Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida.

In the 1950s in his search for a better QED, Paul Dirac developed the Hamiltonian theory of constraints (Canad J Math 1950 vol 2, 129; 1951 vol 3, 1) based on lectures that he delivered at the 1949 International Mathematical Congress in Canada. Dirac (1951 “The Hamiltonian Form of Field Dynamics” Canad Jour Math, vol 3 ,1) had also solved the problem of putting the Tomonaga-Schwinger equation into the Schrödinger representation (See Phillips R J N 1987 “Tributes to Dirac” p31 London:Adam Hilger) and given explicit expressions for the scalar meson field (spin zero pion or pseudoscalar meson), the vector meson field (spin one rho meson), and the electromagnetic field (spin one massless boson, photon).

The Hamiltonian of constrained systems is one of Dirac’s many masterpieces. It is a powerful generalization of Hamiltonian theory that remains valid for curved spacetime. The equations for the Hamiltonian involve only six degrees of freedom described by grs,prs for each point of the surface on which the state is considered. The gm0(m = 0,1,2,3) appear in the theory only through the variables gr0, ( − g00) − 1 / 2 which occur as arbitrary coefficients in the equations of motion. H=∫d3x[( − g00) − 1 / 2HLgr0/g00 Hr] There are four constraints or weak equations for each point of the surface x0 = constant. Three of them Hr form the four vector density in the surface. The fourth HL is a 3-dimensional scalar density in the surface HL≈0; Hr≈0 (r=1,2,3)

In the late 1950s he applied the Hamiltonian methods he had developed to cast Einstein’s general relativity in Hamiltonian form (Proc Roy Soc 1958,A vol 246, 333,Phys Rev 1959,vol 114, 924) and to bring to a technical completion the quantization problem of gravitation and bring it also closer to the rest of physics according to Salam and DeWitt. In 1959 also he gave an invited talk on "Energy of the Gravitational Field" at the New York Meeting of the American Physical Society later published in 1959 Phys Rev Lett 2, 368. In 1964 he published his “Lectures on Quantum Mechanics” (London:Academic) which deals with constrained dynamics of nonlinear dynamical systems including quantization of curved spacetime. He also published a paper entitled “Quantization of the Gravitational Field” in 1967 ICTP/IAEA Trieste Symposium on Contemporary Physics.

If one considers waves moving in the direction x3 resolved into the corresponding Fourier components (r,s = 1,2,3), the variables in the degrees of freedom 13,23,33 are affected by the changes in the coordinate system whereas those in the degrees of freedom 12, (11-22) remain invariant under such changes. The expression for the energy splits up into terms each associated with one of these six degrees of freedom without any cross terms associated with two of them. The degrees of freedom 13, 23, 33 do not appear at all in the expression for energy of gravitational waves in the direction x3. The two degrees of freedom 12, (11-22) contribute a positive definite amount of such a form to represent the energy of gravitational waves. These two degrees of freedom correspond in the language of quantum theory , to the gravitational photons (gravitons) with spin +2 or -2 in their direction of motion. The degrees of freedom (11+22) gives rise to the Newtonian potential energy term showing the gravitational force between the two positive mass is attractive and the self energy of every mass is negative.

Amongst his many students was John Polkinghorne, who recalls that Dirac "was once asked what was his fundamental belief. He strode to a blackboard and wrote that the laws of nature should be expressed in beautiful equations."[30]

1. Wikipedia
2. Nobel Prize Org.

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