Saturday, 25 June 2011

Constellation Program

"Dalam dekade-dekade mendatang umat manusia akan menyaksikan pijakan pertama di Planet Merah, Pertanyaannya adalah siapa yang pertama? 
~Arip Nurahman~

Constellation: Earth, Moon, Mars

Constellation was developed through the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, which determined how NASA would pursue the goals laid out in the Vision for Space Exploration and the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, to send astronauts first to the International Space Station, then to the Moon, and afterward to Mars and other destinations beyond.[2]

Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) was a human spaceflight program within NASA, the space agency of the United States.

Constellation began in response to the goals laid out in the Vision for Space Exploration under NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe. It had already begun development, under several proposals [2][3] After Sean O'Keefe's retirement, his replacement Michael D. Griffin ordered a complete review, termed the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, which reshaped how NASA would pursue the goals laid out in the Vision for Space Exploration. With the NASA Authorization Act of 2005 formalizing the findings of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, work began on this revised Constellation Program to send astronauts first to the International Space Station, then to the Moon, and afterward to Mars and other destinations beyond.[4]

On February 1, 2010, President Barack Obama announced a proposal to cancel the program, effective with the U.S. 2011 fiscal year budget,[5][6][7][8] but later announced changes to the proposal in a major space policy speech at Kennedy Space Center on April 15, 2010. Obama signed the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 on October 11 which brought the program to an end,[9] but Constellation contracts remain in place until Congress acts to overturn the previous mandate.[10][11] The program has been replaced by the U.S. National Space Policy of the Barack Obama administration. NASA announced that it had selected the design of the Space Launch System in September 2011.[12]

Constellation Education

Microgravity University  

Reduced Gravity Program

With the Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program, students and teachers experience hands-on, minds-on science applications as they successfully propose, design, fabricate, fly and evaluate a reduced gravity experiment onboard NASA's Weightless Wonder aircraft. By flying a modified parabola, the aircraft is able to provide students an environment for testing research and equipment in simulated lunar gravity. This offers students an opportunity to gain a better understanding of what it will take to return to and live on the moon.

> Read more


SEED - System Engineering
In order to build the next generation of space vehicles, we will need systems engineers who can manage the complexities of the systems which will carry us back to the moon and beyond.

The "Systems Engineering Educational Discovery (SEED)" is a nation-wide effort led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) to "grow" systems engineers needed for future space initiatives. SEED links current NASA education programs with systems engineering education to promote this exciting career path for budding engineers. Major initiatives include undergraduate curriculum development and dissemination, a national workshop, design challenges via DLN, microgravity experiments, and internships all related to aerospace systems engineering.

Children building a Plant Growth Chamber  

Engineering Design Challenge Plant Growth Chamber
Join NASA in the journey back to the moon by participating in the NASA Engineering Design Challenge in which K-12 students will design, build, and evaluate their own lunar plant growth chambers. Participants will receive basil seeds, that were flown in space, to test their chambers.

> Read more

Students test their rover  

Texas Aerospace Scholars
Texas Aerospace Scholars encourages Texas students to explore the unlimited career possibilities in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) with space exploration as its central theme.

> Read more

Digital Learning Network  

NASA's Digital Learning Network (DLN)
Connect with the people who are designing the next generation of space ships.

A variety of free interactive programs allows students of all ages to connect directly with NASA specialists, scientists, engineers, and astronauts using video conference technology through NASA's Digital Learning Network (DLN).

> Read more

Exploring Space Through Algebra  

NASA’s Exploring Space Through Algebra
NASA’s Exploring Space Through Algebra will help mathematics students (grades 8-12) develop a deeper understanding of key algebraic concepts and learn how to apply those concepts in the context of space exploration.

> Read more

Space Exploration AP Project 

NASA’s Space Exploration AP Project
NASA’s Space Exploration AP project provides challenging supplemental problems based on space exploration topics for students in AP classes (grades 11-12). This project engages students by providing real world applications to promote problem-solving ideas and exposes students to careers working in space exploration.

> Read more

21st Century Explorer 

NASA’s 21st Century Explorer
NASA’s 21st Century Explorer is a series of bilingual educational material for grades 3-5 emphasizing standards-based instruction, Problem-Based Learning, and scientific inquiry. Exploration topics focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) skills.

> Read more

Space Settlement Design Competition  

Space Settlement Design Competition

Live the challenges which the next generations of explorers will face as they learn to live on the moon and mars.  The Space Settlement Design Competition is a weekend three-day live-in industry simulation game for high school students, grades 10 - 12, held each spring at the Johnson Space Center. One hundred and sixty students from Texas and Iowa are divided into four teams to compete as members of simulated aerospace companies in the design of a large human base in orbit, or on the moon, or on Mars, in a scenario set 50 years or more in the future. Space science, engineering, communications and teamwork skills are taught.

Ares boosters

Ares I

The Orion spacecraft would have been launched into a low Earth orbit using the Ares I rocket (the "Stick"), developed by Alliant Techsystems, Rocketdyne, and Boeing.[15][16][17] Formerly referred to as the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the Ares I consisted of a single Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) derived from the boosters used in the Space Shuttle system, connected at its upper end by an interstage support assembly to a new liquid-fueled second stage powered by an uprated Apollo-era J-2X rocket engine. NASA selected the Ares designs for their anticipated overall safety, reliability and cost-efficiency.[18]

The launch of Ares I prototype, Ares I-X on October 28, 2009.
NASA began developing the Ares I low Earth orbit launch vehicle (analogous to Apollo's Saturn IB), returning to a development philosophy used for the original Saturn I, test-launching one stage at a time, which George Mueller abandoned in favor of "all-up" testing for the Saturn V. As of May 2010, the program got as far as launching the first Ares I-X first-stage flight on October 28, 2009 and testing the Orion launch abort system.

Ares V

Ares V would have had a maximum payload capacity of about 188 metric tons (414,000 lb) to low earth orbit (LEO), compared to the Space Shuttle's capacity of 24.4 metric tons, and the Saturn V's 118 metric tons. The Ares V would have carried about 71 metric tons (157,000 lb) to the Moon.[19][20]

The Ares V design incorporated six RS-68 engines with assistance from a pair of 5.5-segment SRBs. Five Space Shuttle main engines (SSME) were originally planned for the Ares V, but the RS-68 engines are more powerful and less complex and therefore less expensive than the SSMEs. The Ares V would have flown for the first eight minutes of powered flight, then the Earth Departure Stage would have placed itself and the Altair spacecraft into low Earth orbit while awaiting the arrival of the Orion.

Comparison of maximum payload to low Earth orbit .
1. Space Shuttle payload includes crew and cargo. 2. Ares I payload includes only crew and inherent craft. 3. Saturn V payload includes crew, inherent craft and cargo. 4. Ares V payload includes only cargo and inherent craft.

Wednesday, 22 June 2011

Cancelled Spacecraft Programs

The First Test Flight of the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA)
The First Test Flight of the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA)

Saturday, 18 June 2011

Astrobiology and Space Exploration

"The earth is the cradle of humankind, but one cannot live in the cradle forever." 
~Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, 1895~
1. Astrobiology and Space Exploration: The Big Bang, Our Universe, and All That Jazz

Stanford University Course

In the Stanford Astrobiology Course, our lectures follow a more or less linear path from the Big Bang all the way to the development of complex life and, finally, space exploration. It is truly amazing how evolutionary principles have operated at the macro, and micro, level ever since the birth of the universe we reside in today.

Physics, research, experimentation, astronomy, extraterrestrial life, planets, asteroids, cosmology, measurements, data, innovation, development, history, science, telescopes, observations, theories, predictions, telescopes, instruments, light, expansion.

A syllabus for the Winter, 2010 Astrobiology Course can be downloaded here.

In order to understand “where we come from”, we must understand the evolutionary history of life, and in order to understand that, we must understand the physical history of the earth, and in order to understand that, we must understand its history in the solar system, and in order to understand that….you get the idea.

So, to start the course we will go all the way back to the origin of the universe.  At the time of the Big Bang, words such as “biology”, “chemistry” and even “physics” had no meaning.  Some of these unfolded in the first fraction of a second, some through generations of stars and time measured in billions of years.  These numbers range from incredibly small to equally incomprehensibly large.  The concepts in cosmology are often so far outside of our experience that it is hard to imagine where these numbers come from.  An expanding universe 13.7 billion years old?  Wow.  For this reason, we will include epistemology – in other words, how we know what we do today.

Below you will find a list of recommended resources. If you would like to learn more about the Big Bang, check out these books, videos, and articles.

1. Stanford University

Ucapan Terima Kasih:

1. Bapak. Prof. Dr. Ing. H. B. J. Habibie.

2. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional

3. Kementrian Riset dan Teknologi

4. Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional

Disusun Ulang Oleh:

Arip Nurahman

Department of Physics, Indonesia University of Education


Follower Open Course Ware at MIT-Harvard University, Cambridge.USA.

Semoga Bermanfaat dan Terima Kasih

Friday, 17 June 2011

Mengoptimalkan E-Journal Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional

"Jika Banyak Pelajar Nusantara Mempelajari IPTEKS Nuklir kita bisa menjadi negeri yang maju" 
*Arip Nurahman* 

Logo Header Halaman


Jurnal Aplikasi Isotop Radiasi



Jurnal Ilmiah Aplikasi Isotop dan Radiasi terbit dua kali setahun setiap Bulan Juni dan Desember. Penerbit khusus dilakukan bila diperlukan, Alamat Redaksi: Pusat Aplikasi Teknologi Isotop dan Radiasi (PATIR), BATAN, Jl. Lebak Bulus Raya No. 49, Po Box 7002 JKSKL, Jakarta 12070
Lihat Jurnal | Terbitan Terkini | Daftar

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PIN Pengelolaan Instalasi Nuklir


Majalah Ilmiah Pengelolaan Instalasi Nuklir "PIN" yang diterbitkan oleh Pusat Teknologi Bahan Bakar  Nuklir (PTBN) - BATAN, menerima dan mempublikasikan naskah berupa hasil penelitian, kajian dan tinjauan ilmiah yang berhubungan dengan kegiatan pengelolaan instalasi nuklir
Lihat Jurnal | Terbitan Terkini | Daftar

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Prima Aplikasi dan Rekayasa dalam Bidang Iptek Nuklir


Jurnal Prima Aplikasi dan Rekayasa dalam Bidang Iptek Nuklir, Jurnal ilmiah diterbitkan oleh Pusat Rekayasa Perangkat Nuklir - BATAN

Alamat Rekaksi: Pusat Rekayasa Perangkat Nuklir (PRPN) - BATAN
Gedung 71 Lantai2 Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong 15310, Telp. (021) 7560896, Fax. (021) 7560921
Lihat Jurnal | Terbitan Terkini | Daftar

Bila kita mampu membangun himpunan-himpunan peneliti kecil di tiap sekolah tinggi/kampus di Indonesia mengenai Iptek Nuklir ini, kemungkinan besar percepatan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan Nuklir di tanah air akan semakin dahsyat dan masyarakat kita di kemudian hari dapat memetik manfaatnya.


Sumber: Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional

Kunjungi juga:  (BATAN) (International Atomic Energy Agency)  (Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi Nuklir) (Masyarakat Nuklir Indonesia) (Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir BATAN) (Nuclear Engineering OpenCourseWare from MIT) (Jurusan Pendidikan Fisika, FPMIPA Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia)

Ucapan Terima Kasih Kepada:

Kak Rezy Pradipta, Ph.D. (Alumni Tim Olimpiade Fisika Indonesia, Belajar di Department of Nuclear Engineering at MIT)

Dr. Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei, J.S.D. (Former Director General of IAEA)

Prof. Mujid S. Kazimi, Ph.D. (Director, Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems MIT)

Prof.Djarot Sulistio Wisnubroto, M.Sc., D.Sc. (Presiden BATAN)

Kak Iqbal Robiyana, S.Pd. (Founder Center for Nuclear Education at Indonesia University of Education)

Dr. Petros Aslanyan, M.Sc. (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Rusia & Yerevan State University)

Semangat Semoga Bermanfaat

Wednesday, 15 June 2011

Para Peraih Nobel yang Hebat

According to the statutes, the Foundation consists of a board of five Swedish or Norwegian citizens, with its seat in Stockholm. The Chairman of the Board is appointed by the Swedish King in Council, with the other four members appointed by the trustees of the prize-awarding institutions.

An Executive Director is chosen from among the board members, a Deputy Director is appointed by the King in Council, and two deputies are appointed by the trustees. However, since 1995, all the members of the board have been chosen by the trustees, and the Executive Director and the Deputy Director appointed by the board itself. 

As well as the board, the Nobel Foundation is made up of the prize-awarding institutions (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, the Swedish Academy, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the trustees of these institutions, and auditors.
Berseminya komunitas-komunitas ilmiah di masyarakat perlu di dorong pertumbuhannya agar menjadi obor penerang di kehidupan kita. 

Para peraih Nobel yang Prestisius ini perlu kita teladani, para pelajar segera berbondong-bondong mempelajari penelitian mereka.

Nobel Prize


Saturday, 11 June 2011

Indonesian Space Force Command

Indonesian Space Force Command
Untuk Keamanan Luar Angkasa 
Dari Angkatan Antariksa Indonesia

“You cannot simultaneously prevent and prepare for war.”

 ~Albert Einstein~

F-35 Lightning II
Gray jet aircraft taking off on a clear blue sky, with the landing gear still protruding from its underside. Mountains make-up the background.
An F-35A Lightning II, marked AA-1, lands at Edwards Air Force Base, California
Role Stealth multirole fighter
National origin United States
Manufacturer Lockheed Martin Aeronautics
First flight 15 December 2006
Introduction 2016[1]-2018[2][3]
Status In limited production, undergoing flight testing
Produced 2006–present
Number built 13 flight-test aircraft[N 1]
Unit cost F-35A: US$122 million (flyaway cost, 2011)[6]
F-35B: US$150M (avg. cost, 2011)[7]
F-35C: US$139.5M (avg. cost, 2011)[7][8]
Note: Average costs excludes development cost[7]
F-35A weapons system unit cost is US$183.5M (FY 2011)[6]
Developed from Lockheed Martin X-35

The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, fifth generation multirole fighters under development to perform ground attack, reconnaissance, and air defense missions with stealth capability.[9][10] The F-35 has three main models; one is a conventional takeoff and landing variant, the second is a short take off and vertical-landing variant, and the third is a carrier -based variant.


F-35A being towed to its inauguration ceremony on 7 July 2006

F-35B's thrust vectoring nozzle and lift fan

The F-35 appears to be a smaller, slightly more conventional, single-engine sibling of the sleeker, twin-engine Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, and indeed drew elements from it. The exhaust duct design was inspired by the General Dynamics Model 200 design, which was proposed for a 1972 supersonic VTOL fighter requirement for the Sea Control Ship.[67] For specialized development of the F-35B STOVL variant, Lockheed consulted with the Yakovlev Design Bureau, purchasing design data from their development of the Yakovlev Yak-141 "Freestyle".[68][69] Although several experimental designs have been built and tested since the 1960s including the Navy's unsuccessful Rockwell XFV-12, the F-35B is to be the first operational supersonic, STOVL stealth fighter.[70]

The F-35 has a maximum speed of over Mach 1.6. With a maximum takeoff weight of 60,000 lb (27,000 kg),[N 3][72] the Lightning II is considerably heavier than the lightweight fighters it replaces. In empty and maximum gross weights, it more closely resembles the single-seat, single-engine Republic F-105 Thunderchief, which was the largest single-engine fighter of the Vietnam war era. However the F-35's modern engine delivers over 60 percent more thrust in an aircraft of the same weight so that in thrust to weight and wing loading it is much closer to a comparably equipped F-16.[N 4]

Acquisition deputy to the assistant secretary of the Air Force, Lt. Gen. Mark D. "Shack" Shackelford has said that the F-35 is designed to be America's "premier surface-to-air missile killer and is uniquely equipped for this mission with cutting edge processing power, synthetic aperture radar integration techniques, and advanced target recognition."[74][75]
Some improvements over current-generation fighter aircraft are:
  • Durable, low-maintenance stealth technology, using structural fiber mat instead of the high-maintenance coatings of legacy stealth platforms;[76]
  • Integrated avionics and sensor fusion that combine information from off and on board sensors to increase the pilot's situational awareness and improve target identification and weapon delivery, and to relay information quickly to other command and control (C2) nodes;
  • High speed data networking including IEEE 1394b[77] and Fibre Channel.[78]
  • The Autonomic Logistics Global Sustainment (ALGS), Autonomic Logistics Information System (ALIS) and Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) help ensure aircraft uptime with minimal maintenance manpower.[79]
  • Electrohydrostatic actuators run by a power-by-wire flight-control system.[80]
Lockheed Martin claims the F-35 is intended to have close and long-range air-to-air capability second only to that of the F-22 Raptor.[9] The company has suggested that the F-35 could also replace the USAF's F-15C/D fighters in the air superiority role and the F-15E Strike Eagle in the ground attack role, but it does not have the range or payload of either F-15 model.[81] The F-35A does carry a similar air-to-air armament as the Boeing F-15SE Silent Eagle when both aircraft are configured for low observable operations and has over 80 percent of the larger aircraft's combat radius.[82]

The majority of the structural composites in the F-35 are made out of bismaleimide (BMI) and composite epoxy material.[83] However the F-35 will be the first mass produced aircraft to include structural nanocomposites, Carbon nanotube reinforced Epoxy.[84]

The F-35 program has learned from the corrosion problems that the F-22 had when it was first introduced in 2005. The F-35 uses a gap filler that causes less galvanic corrosion to the skin, is designed with fewer gaps in its skin that require gap filler, and has better drainage.[85]

A United States Navy study found that the F-35 will cost 30 to 40 percent more to maintain than current jet fighters.[86] And a Pentagon study found that it may cost $1 trillion to maintain the entire fleet over its lifetime.[87]



The F-35's main engine is the Pratt & Whitney F135. The General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136 is being developed as an alternative engine.[88] The F135/F136 engines are not designed to supercruise in the F-35.[89] The STOVL versions of both power plants use the Rolls-Royce LiftSystem, patented by Lockheed Martin and built by Rolls-Royce. This system is more like the Russian Yak-141 and German VJ 101D/E than the preceding generation of STOVL designs,[90] such as the Harrier Jump Jet in which all of the lifting air went through the main fan of the Rolls-Royce Pegasus engine.[91]

The Lift System is composed of a lift fan, drive shaft, two roll posts and a "Three Bearing Swivel Module" (3BSM).[92] The 3BSM is a thrust vectoring nozzle which allows the main engine exhaust to be deflected downward at the tail of the aircraft. The lift fan is near the front of the aircraft and provides a counter-balancing thrust using two counter-rotating blisks.[93] It is powered by the engine's low-pressure (LP) turbine via a drive shaft and gearbox. Roll control during slow flight is achieved by diverting unheated engine bypass air through wing mounted thrust nozzles called Roll Posts.[94][95] Like lift engines, the added lift fan machinery increases payload capacity during vertical flight, but is dead weight during horizontal flight. The cool exhaust of the fan also reduces the amount of hot, high-velocity air that is projected downward during vertical take off, which can damage runways and aircraft carrier decks.[citation needed]

To date, F136 funding has come at the expense of other parts of the program, reducing the number of aircraft

built and increasing their costs.[96] The F136 team has claimed that their engine has a greater temperature margin which may prove critical for VTOL operations in hot, high altitude conditions.[97]

Pratt & Whitney is also testing higher thrust versions of the F135, partly in response to GE's claims that the F136 is capable of producing more thrust than the 43,000 lbf (190 kN) supplied by early F135s. The F135 has demonstrated a maximum thrust of over 50,000 lbf (220 kN) during testing.[98] The F-35's Pratt & Whitney F135 is the most powerful engine ever installed in a fighter aircraft.[99]

The F135 is the second (radar) stealthy afterburning jet engine and like the Pratt & Whitney F119 from which it was derived, has suffered from pressure pulsations in the afterburner at low altitude and high speed or "screech". In both cases this problem was fixed during development of the fighter program.[100]
Turbine bearing health in the engine will be monitored with thermoelectric powered wireless sensors.[101]


Close-up view of open aircraft weapons bay. The aircraft mock-up itself is on display, watched on by onlookers.
Weapons bay on a mock-up of the F-35

The F-35A includes a GAU-22/A, a four-barrel version of the GAU-12 Equalizer 25 mm cannon.[102] The cannon will be mounted internally with 180 rounds in the F-35A and fitted as an external pod with 220 rounds in the F-35B and F-35C.[103][104] The gun pod for the B and C variants will have stealth features. This pod could be used for different equipment in the future, such as EW, reconnaissance equipment, or possibly a rearward-facing radar.[105]

Internally, up to two 2,000 lb (910 kg) air-to-ground bombs can be carried in A and C models (BRU-68) (two 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs in the B model (BRU-67)[106][107]) along with two smaller weapons, normally expected to be air-to-air missiles. Lockheed Martin says on its website that the weapons load can also be configured as all-air-to-ground or all-air-to-air, and has suggested that a Block 5 version will be able to carry three internal weapons per bay instead of two, replacing the heavy bomb with two smaller weapons such as AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles.[108] 

Missiles and bombs to be carried inside the weapon bays include AIM-120 AMRAAM, AIM-132 ASRAAM, the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) – up to 2,000 lb (910 kg), the Joint Stand off Weapon (JSOW), Small Diameter Bombs (SDB) – a maximum of four in each bay (three per bay in F-35B,[109] or four GBU-53/B in each bay for all F-35 variants;[110] a set of up to four small diameter bombs takes the place of a single larger bomb), Brimstone anti-armor missiles, and Cluster Munitions (WCMD).[107] The MBDA Meteor air-to-air missile is currently being adapted to fit four internally in the missile spots and may be integrated into the F-35. A modified Meteor design with smaller tailfins for the F-35 was revealed in September 2010.[111] The United Kingdom had originally planned to put up to four AIM-132 ASRAAM internally but this has been changed to carry 2 internal and 2 external ASRAAMs.[112] The external ASRAAMs will add only an insignificant amount to the F-35's radar cross section and will allow attacks to slightly beyond visual range without using radar that might alert the target.[113]

At the expense of being more detectable by radar, many more missiles, bombs and fuel tanks can be attached on four wing pylons and two near wingtip positions. The two wingtip locations can only carry AIM-9X Sidewinder. The other pylons can carry the AIM-120 AMRAAM, Storm Shadow, AGM-158 Joint Air to Surface Stand-off Missile (JASSM) cruise missiles, guided bombs, 480 US gallons (1,800 L) and 600 US gallons (2,300 L) fuel tanks.[114] An air-to-air load of eight AIM-120s and two AIM-9s is conceivable using internal and external weapons stations, as well as a configuration of six 2,000 lb (910 kg) bombs, two AIM-120s and two AIM-9s.[107][115] With its payload capability, the F-35 can carry more weapons payload than the legacy fighters it is to replace as well as the F-22 Raptor.[116] Solid-state lasers were being developed as optional weapons for the F-35 as of 2002.[117][118][119]

While the F-35 will take on the Wild Weasel mission, it will lack the ability to carry an anti-radiation missile internally (and therefore stealthily) until the JDRADM is fielded in 2025.[120]

Norway and Australia are funding a program to adapt the Naval Strike Missile (NSM) to fit the internal bays of the F-35. This will be a multirole version, named the Joint Strike Missile (JSM), and will be the only cruise missile to fit the internal bays. Studies have shown that the F-35 would be able to carry two of these internally, while four additional missiles could be carried externally. The missile has an expected range in excess of 150 nmi (278 km).[121] On 12 April 2011 the Norwegian Ministry of Defence announced phase 2 of development with a cost estimate of 1029 MNOK.[122]

Tuesday, 7 June 2011

Apa Itu Relativitas Umum Einstein?

Banyak prediksi relativitas umum yang berbeda dengan prediksi fisika klasik, utamanya prediksi mengenai berjalannya waktu, geometri ruang, gerak benda pada jatuh bebas, dan perambatan cahaya.

Contoh perbedaan ini meliputi dilasi waktu gravitasional, geseran merah gravitasional cahaya, dan tunda waktu gravitasional. Prediksi-prediksi relativitas umum telah dikonfirmasikan dalam semua percobaan dan pengamatan fisika.

Walaupun relativitas umum bukanlah satu-satunya teori relativistik gravitasi, ia merupakan teori paling sederhana yang konsisten dengan data-data eksperimen. Namun, masih terdapat banyak pertanyaan yang belum terjawab.

Secara mendasar, terdapat pertanyaan bagaimanakah relativitas umum ini dapat digabungkan dengan hukum-hukum fisika kuantum untuk menciptakan teori gravitasi kuantum yang lengkap dan swa-konsisten.


Kunjungi Juga:

Memahami Relativitas Umum Einstein


The University of Cambridge


To Be Continued