Monday, 29 December 2008

Smile a While with Astro Physics

"Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind."

-Albert Einstein-
"Gravitation is not responsible for people falling in love."
-Albert Einstein-

Just Smile a While with Astro Physics

The Most Beautifulest and Most Handsome Physicist

Nominasi fisikawan Tercantik dan Terganteng {Lebai}

1. Lisa Randall (Harvard University)
2. Rosalind Franklin (Cambridge University)
3. Helen Quinn (Stanford University)
4. Myriam Sarachik(Columbia University)
5. Maria Goeppert Mayer (University of Goettingen)
6. Patricia Elizabeth Cladis (University of Rochester)
7. Hertha Sponer (Göttingen University)
8. Gail Gulledge Hanson (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
9. Sau Lan Wu(Harvard University)
10. Sulamith Goldhaber(University of Wisconsin)
11. Louise Dolan()
12. Noemie Benczer Koller(Columbia University)
13. Jocelyn Bell Burnell (Cambridge University)
14. Mary Katharine Gaillard(Universite de Paris)
15. Marie Curie (Most Genius Women in Physics)

Louise Dolan at MIT

Burbidge, E. Margaret
Burnell, Jocelyn Bell
Faber, Sandra Moore
Leavitt, Henrietta Swan
Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia Helena
Rubin, Vera Cooper
Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics
Bonnelle, Christiane
Bramley, Jenny Rosenthal
Cauchois, Yvette
Connes, Janine
Sponer, Hertha
Condensed Matter Physics
Ancker-Johnson, Betsy
Blodgett, Katharine Burr
Cladis, Patricia Elizabeth
Conwell, Esther Marly
Dresselhaus, Mildred Spiewak
Ericson, Magda Galula
Kaufman, Bruria
Sarachik, Myriam P.
Sengers, Johanna Levelt
Cosmic Rays
Freier, Phyllis S.
Franklin, Rosalind
Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot
Lonsdale, Kathleen Yardley
Megaw, Helen
Distinguished for Public Service
Dowdy, Nancy M. O'Fallon
Education and the Profession
DeWitt-Morette, Cecile
Franz, Judy R.
Jackson, Shirley Ann
Keith, Marcia Anna
Laird, Elizabeth Rebecca
Maltby, Margaret Eliza
Meyer, Kirstine Bjerrum
Phillips, Melba Newell
Stone, Isabelle
Whiting, Sarah Frances
Xie, Xide (Hsieh, Hsi-teh)
Fluid Dynamics
Pockels, Agnes
Polubarinova-Kochina, P. Ya.

Fluid Dynamics and Plasma Physics
Ayrton, Hertha Marks
Lehmann, Inge
Material Physics
Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Doris
Neumark, Gertrude Fanny

Mathematical Physics
Cartwright, Mary Lucy
Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne
Dolan, Louise
Ehrenfest-Afanaseva, Tatiana
Jeffreys, Bertha Swirles
Kallosh, Renata
Kaufman, Bruria
Noether, Amalie Emmy
Nuclear Physics
Ajzenberg Selove,Fay
Brooks, Harriet
Curie, Marie Sklodowska
Ericson, Magda Galula
Gates, Fanny Cook
Gleditsch, Ellen
Goldhaber, Gertrude Scharff
Hayward, Evans
Joliot-Curie, Irene
Karlik, Berta
Koller, Noemie Benczer
Mayer, Maria Goeppert
Meitner, Lise
Meyer-Schutzmeister, Luise
Noddack, Ida Tacke
Perey, Marguerite Catherine
Phillips, Melba Newell
Way, Katharine
Wu, Chien Shiung
Particle and Fields
Baldo-Ceolin, Milla
Blau, Marietta
Byers, Nina
Edwards, Helen T.
Gaillard, Mary Katharine
Goldhaber, Sulamith
Hanson, Gail Gulledge
Lee-Franzini, Juliet
Quinn, Helen R.
Sechi-Zorn, Bice
Wu, Sau Lan
Physicist Distinguished in Other Fields
Quimby, Edith Hinkley
Yalow, Rosalyn Sussman

Physics of Beams
Edwards, Helen T.
Space Physics
Herzenberg, Caroline Littlejohn
Kivelson, Margaret Galland
Neugebauer, Marcia

Fisikawan Terganteng:

1. Isaac Newton (Cambridge)

2. James Clerk Maxwell (Edinburgh)

3. Paul Sutcliffe (Kent at Canterbury)

4. Sean Carroll (CALTECH)

5. Richard Feynman (CALTECH) {"Surely You are Joking Mr. Feynman"}

8. Arip Nurahman (Ton kamu no 9 aja yah ha.,.ha,..upsss)

9. Anton Timur J. (Ah si aa mah licik euy.,.,)

Kami panitia sedang musyawarahkan kira-kira hukum atau teori fisika apa yang digunakan juri dalam penilaian untuk fisikawan tercantik dan terganteng ini, apakah Teori Relativitas Einstein atau Hukum ketidakpastian Heisenberg.

Senyum Sejenak

Dari Berbagai Sumber

Semoga Bermanfaat.

Sunday, 28 December 2008

Central for Research and Development for Winning Nobel Prize in Physics at Indonesia ( a Dream)

How Indonesian People Get Nobel Prize in The Future

Central for Research and Development for Winning
Nobel Prize in Physics at Indonesia

Person in this years:

CV Prof. Lisa Randall, Ph.D.

Harvard UniversityDepartment of Physics
17 Oxford Street Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
(617) 496-8188 (office)

Born June 18, 1962 (1962-06-18)
Residence U.S.
Nationality American
Fields Physics
Institutions Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
University of California, Berkeley
Princeton University
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Harvard University
Alma mater Harvard University
Doctoral advisor Howard Georgi

Strategy for Winning The Nobel Prize in Physics

A Step a Head to Get Nobel Prize in Physics

Perbaikan Ke:

1; 21-04-2010

Oleh: Arip Nurahman

Pendidikan Fisika, FPMIPA, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
Follower Open Course Ware at MIT-Harvard University, USA.

Saturday, 20 December 2008

Faraday's Experiment

A physics lab demo of Faraday's Expermiment.

Sunday, 14 December 2008

Pusat Pengembangan Kompetisi Olimpiade Astronomi Indonesia

Pusat Pengembangan Kompetisi Olimpiade Astrofisika Indonesia
[The Indonesian Astro Physics Olympiad Development



"Bringing Astrophysics to Our Society"



Rencana Strategis

1. Pembangunan Pusat Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Astro Fisika di tiap Kabupaten/Kota di Indonesia
Sebagai Pionir di bukanya
Banjar Astro Physics Association

a. Pengembangan Kurikulum Astrofisika
b. Pengembangan Sylabus Pendidikan Astrofisika
c. Riset, analisa dan pengembangan soal-soal Kompetisi Astrofisika

2. Kerjasama dengan Organisasi Keantariksaan Local, Nasional dan International
(Departemen Pendidikan Fisika UPI, Cakrawala UPI, Departemen Astronomi ITB, Jogja Astro Club, Lapan, MIT Open Course Ware dan Forum NASA bagi Para Guru)

3. Melakukan pengamatan (Observasi) terhadap gejala-gejala Astrofisika dalam
kehidupan sehari-hari

The International Astronomy Olympiad Web Site

2nd International Olympiad On Astronomy and Astrophysics Part I

2nd International Olympiad On Astronomy and Astrophysics Part II

We Are The Next Champions (Collaborative Writing With Bangladesh Centre Astrophysics Olympiad by: Dear: Shareer 14 Years Old 9th Grade in Junior High School, Dhaka. Bangladesh)

Wednesday, 10 December 2008


In meteorology, a cloud is a visible mass of liquid droplets or frozen crystals made of water or various chemicals suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body. These suspended particles are also known as aerosols. Clouds in earth's atmosphere are studied in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated; cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. In general, precipitation will fall to the surface; an exception is virga, which evaporates before reaching the surface.
The international cloud classification system is based on the fact clouds can show free-convective upward growth like cumulus, appear in non-convective layered sheets such as stratus, or take the form of thin fibrous wisps, as in the case of cirrus. Prefixes are used in connection with clouds: strato- for low clouds with limited convection that form mostly in layers, nimbo- for thick layered clouds that can produce moderate to heavy precipitation, alto- for middle clouds, and cirro- for high clouds. Whether or not a cloud is low, middle, or high level depends on how far above the ground its base forms. Cloud types with significant vertical extent can form in the low or middle altitude ranges depending on the moisture content of the air. Clouds in the troposphere have Latin names due to the popular adaptation of Luke Howard's cloud categorization system, which began to spread in popularity during December 1802. Synoptic surface weather observations use code numbers to record and report the types of tropospheric cloud visible at each scheduled observation time based on the height and physical appearance of the clouds.
While a majority of clouds form in Earth's troposphere, there are occasions when clouds in the stratosphere and mesosphere can be observed. These three main layers of the atmosphere where clouds may be seen are collectively known as the homosphere. Above this lies the thermosphere and exosphere, which together make up the heterosphere that marks the transition to outer space. Clouds have been observed on other planets and moons within the Solar System, but, due to their different temperature characteristics, they are composed of other substances such as methane, ammonia, and sulfuric acid.


Sunday, 7 December 2008

Indonesian Space Sciences & Technology School

Principles of Automatic Control




Prof. John Deyst
Prof. Karen Willcox

NASA Ames Research Center pilot George E. Tucker evaluates perspective flight guidance displays being developed by a Boeing/Ames research team for "runway independent aircraft." (Image courtesy of NASA.)

Course Features

Course Description

The course deals with introduction to design of feedback control systems, properties and advantages of feedback systems, time-domain and frequency-domain performance measures, stability and degree of stability. It also covers root locus method, nyquist criterion, frequency-domain design, and state space methods.

*Some translations represent previous versions of courses


Writing Lab Reports

Here is a copy of the Results and Conclusions sections from a fairly good lab report (PDF). It's not perfect, but the author does a good job of labelling graphs and tables, referring to them in the text, and writing concise, relevant conclusions.
Notes on writing a lab report (handout from recitation five days after lecture #8) (PDF).

Lab Handouts

Lab #1 (PDF)
Lab #2 (PDF)

Skills Review

Further information on the Mathematical Knowledge Topics for each 16.06 lecture may be found in the Supplementary Math Notes (PDF), which are organized by 16.06 lecture topics and the associated Mathematical Knowledge Topics.
The following list of topics link to the corresponding entry in the table below.
  1. Course Introduction
  2. Introduction to Control Systems
  3. Control System Analysis and Design
  4. Disturbances and Sensitivity
  5. Steady-State Errors
  6. The s-Plane, Poles and Zeroes
  7. Transient Response Characteristics and System Stability
  8. Dominant Modes
  9. Transient Performance and the Effect of Zeroes
  10. The Effect of Zeroes
  11. State Space
  12. State Space Modeling
  13. More State Space Modeling and Transfer Function Matrices
  14. Quanser Model and State Transition Matrices
  15. Solutions of State Space Differential Equations
  16. Controllability


Lecture Notes

The blank areas found in the lecture notes below are intentional. Students are given the printed notes preceeding each lecture but are expected to fill in blank areas themselves based on the in-class content.
Supplements to the notes are available (PDF)
Module 1: Control System Analysis
1 Course Introduction (PDF)
2 Introduction to Control Systems (PDF)
3 Control System Analysis and Design (PDF)
4 Disturbances and Sensitivity (PDF)
5 Steady-State Errors (PDF)
6 S-Plane, Poles and Zeroes (PDF)
7 Transient Response and Stability (PDF)
8 Dominant Modes (PDF)
9 Transient Response and Performance (PDF)
10 Effects of Zeroes (PDF)
Module 2: State-Space Methods
11 State Space (PDF)
12 State Space Modeling (PDF)
13 More State Space Modeling and Transfer Function Matrices (PDF)
14 Quanser Model and State Transition Matrices (PDF)
15 Solutions of State Space Differential Equations (PDF)
16 Controllability (PDF)
17 Quiz 1
18 Controllability Continued (PDF)
19 State Space Design (PDF)
Module 3: Time Domain System Design
20 Proportional Control (PDF)
21 Control System Design (Time Domain) (PDF)
22 Root Locus Rules (PDF)
23 Root Locus Examples (PDF)
24 Root Locus Design (PDF)
25 Compensator Design (PDF)
Module 4: Frequency Domain System Design
26 Frequency Response Analysis (PDF)
27 Polar Plots (PDF)
28 Principle of the Argument and the Nyquist Stability Criterion (PDF)
29 Nyquist Examples See Lec 28 notes
30 More Nyquist Examples (PDF)
31 Quiz 2
32 Gain and Phase Margins (PDF)
33 The Gain-Phase Plane and Nichols Charts (PDF)
34 Open and Closed Loop Behavior and the Second Order System Paradigm (PDF)
35 Bode Diagrams (PDF)
36 First and Second Order System Bode Diagrams (PDF)
37 Compensation and Bode Design (PDF)
38 More Bode Design
39 Train Lecture (PDF)

Sumber: MIT Open Course Ware

Friday, 5 December 2008


A rainbow is an optical and meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection of light in water droplets in the Earth's atmosphere, resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicoloured arc.

Rainbows caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the sun.
In a "primary rainbow", the arc shows red on the outer part and violet on the inner side. This rainbow is caused by light being refracted while entering a droplet of water, then reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it.
In a double rainbow, a second arc is seen outside the primary arc, and has the order of its colours reversed, red facing toward the other one, in both rainbows. This second rainbow is caused by light reflecting twice inside water droplets.

Source: Wikipedia

Tuesday, 2 December 2008

Physics in Our Every Day Life Part I (WHY IS THE SKY BLUE? )

Added & Edited
By: Arip Nurahman
Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics
Indonesia University of Education


Follower Open Course Ware at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, USA
Department of Physics
Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering

Bapak Insan Arif Hidayat
Lecture in Physics & Mathematics @ Department of Physics
Indonesia University of Education
Thanks to Mr. Taufik Ramlan R., Drs., M.Si.
(Head Department of Physics, UPI )
for the Lesson in IPBA, Ilmu Pengetahuan Bumi dan Antariksa
(Aerospace and Earth Sciences Lecturer)


Part 1


The sky is the part of the atmosphere or of outer space visible from the surface of any astronomical object. It is difficult to define precisely for several reasons. During daylight, the sky of Earth has the appearance of a deep blue surface because of the air's scattering of sunlight. The sky is sometimes defined as the denser gaseous zone of a planet's atmosphere. At night the sky has the appearance of a black surface or region scattered with stars.

During the day the Sun can be seen in the sky, unless covered by clouds. In the night sky (and to some extent during the day) the moon, planets and stars are visible in the sky. Some of the natural phenomena seen in the sky are clouds, rainbows, and aurorae. Lightning and precipitation can also be seen in the sky during storms. On Earth, birds, insects, aircraft, and kites are often considered to fly in the sky. As a result of human activities, smog during the day and light radiance during the night are often seen above large cities (see also light pollution).

In the field of astronomy, the sky is also called the celestial sphere. This is an imaginary dome where the sun, stars, planets, and the moon are seen to be travelling. The celestial sphere is divided into regions called constellations.

See skies of other planets for descriptions of the skies of various planets and moons in the solar system.


On a clear sunny day, the sky above us looks bright blue. In the evening, the sunset puts on a brilliant show of reds, pinks and oranges. Why is the sky blue? What makes the sunset red? To answer these questions, we must learn about light, and the Earth's atmosphere.

The Atmosphere

The atmosphere is the mixture of gas molecules and other materials surrounding the earth. It is made mostly of the gases nitrogen (78%), and oxygen (21%). Argon gas and water (in the form of vapor, droplets and ice crystals) are the next most common things. There are also small amounts of other gases, plus many small solid particles, like dust, soot and ashes, pollen, and salt from the oceans.

The composition of the atmosphere varies, depending on your location, the weather, and many other things. There may be more water in the air after a rainstorm, or near the ocean. Volcanoes can put large amounts of dust particles high into the atmosphere. Pollution can add different gases or dust and soot.The atmosphere is densest (thickest) at the bottom, near the Earth. It gradually thins out as you go higher and higher up. There is no sharp break between the atmosphere and space.

Light Waves

Light is a kind of energy that radiates, or travels, in waves. Many different kinds of energy travel in waves. For example, sound is a wave of vibrating air. Light is a wave of vibrating electric and magnetic fields. It is one small part of a larger range of vibrating electromagnetic fields. This range is called the electromagnetic spectrum.

Electromagnetic waves travel through space at 299,792 km/sec (186,282 miles/sec). This is called the speed of light.

The energy of the radiation depends on its wavelength and frequency. Wavelength is the distance between the tops (crests) of the waves. Frequency is the number of waves that pass by each second. The longer the wavelength of the light, the lower the frequency, and the less energy it contains.

Color of Light

Visible light is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes can see. Light from the sun or a light bulb may look white, but it is actually a combination of many colors. We can see the different colors of the spectrum by splitting the light with a prism. The spectrum is also visible when you see a rainbow in the sky.

The colors blend continuously into one another. At one end of the spectrum are the reds and oranges. These gradually shade into yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The colors have different wavelengths, frequencies, and energies. Violet has the shortest wavelength in the visible spectrum. That means it has the highest frequency and energy. Red has the longest wavelength, and lowest frequency and energy.

Light in The Air

Light travels through space in a straight line as long as nothing disturbs it. As light moves through the atmosphere, it continues to go straight until it bumps into a bit of dust or a gas molecule. Then what happens to the light depends on its wave length and the size of the thing it hits.

Dust particles and water droplets are much larger than the wavelength of visible light. When light hits these large particles, it gets reflected, or bounced off, in different directions. The different colors of light are all reflected by the particle in the same way. The reflected light appears white because it still contains all of the same colors.

Gas molecules are smaller than the wavelength of visible light. If light bumps into them, it acts differently. When light hits a gas molecule, some of it may get absorbed. After awhile, the molecule radiates (releases, or gives off) the light in a different direction. The color that is radiated is the same color that was absorbed. The different colors of light are affected differently. All of the colors can be absorbed. But the higher frequencies (blues) are absorbed more often than the lower frequencies (reds). This process is called Rayleigh scattering. (It is named after Lord John Rayleigh, an English physicist, who first described it in the 1870's.).


Why Is The Sky Blue?

The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering. As light moves through the atmosphere, most of the longer wavelengths pass straight through. Little of the red, orange and yellow light is affected by the air.

However, much of the shorter wavelength light is absorbed by the gas molecules. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in different directions. It gets scattered all around the sky. Whichever direction you look, some of this scattered blue light reaches you. Since you see the blue light from everywhere overhead, the sky looks blue.

As you look closer to the horizon, the sky appears much paler in color. To reach you, the scattered blue light must pass through more air. Some of it gets scattered away again in other directions. Less blue light reaches your eyes. The color of the sky near the horizon appears paler or white.

The Black Sky and White Sun

On Earth, the sun appears yellow. If you were out in space, or on the moon, the sun would look white. In space, there is no atmosphere to scatter the sun's light. On Earth, some of the shorter wavelength light (the blues and violets) are removed from the direct rays of the sun by scattering. The remaining colors together appear yellow.

Also, out in space, the sky looks dark and black, instead of blue. This is because there is no atmosphere. There is no scattered light to reach your eyes.

Why Is The Sunset Red?

As the sun begins to set, the light must travel farther through the atmosphere before it gets to you. More of the light is reflected and scattered. As less reaches you directly, the sun appears less bright. The color of the sun itself appears to change, first to orange and then to red. This is because even more of the short wavelength blues and greens are now scattered. Only the longer wavelengths are left in the direct beam that reaches your eyes.

The sky around the setting sun may take on many colors. The most spectacular shows occur when the air contains many small particles of dust or water. These particles reflect light in all directions. Then, as some of the light heads towards you, different amounts of the shorter wavelength colors are scattered out. You see the longer wavelengths, and the sky appears red, pink or orange.


A clear cloudless day-time sky is blue because molecules in the air scatter blue light from the sun more than they scatter red light. When we look towards the sun at sunset, we see red and orange colors because the blue light has been scattered out and away from the line of sight.

The white light from the sun is a mixture of all colors of the rainbow. This was demonstrated by Isaac Newton, who used a prism to separate the different colors and so form a spectrum. The colors of light are distinguished by their different wavelengths. The visible part of the spectrum ranges from red light with a wavelength of about 720 nm, to violet with a wavelength of about 380 nm, with orange, yellow, green, blue and indigo between. The three different types of color receptors in the retina of the human eye respond most strongly to red, green and blue wavelengths, giving us our color vision.

Tyndall Effect

The first steps towards correctly explaining the colour of the sky were taken by John Tyndall in 1859. He discovered that when light passes through a clear fluid holding small particles in suspension, the shorter blue wavelengths are scattered more strongly than the red. This can be demonstrated by shining a beam of white light through a tank of water with a little milk or soap mixed in. From the side, the beam can be seen by the blue light it scatters; but the light seen directly from the end is reddened after it has passed through the tank. The scattered light can also be shown to be polarised using a filter of polarised light, just as the sky appears a deeper blue through polaroid sun glasses.

This is most correctly called the Tyndall effect, but it is more commonly known to physicists as Rayleigh scattering--after Lord Rayleigh, who studied it in more detail a few years later. He showed that the amount of light scattered is inversely proportional to the fourth power of wavelength for sufficiently small particles. It follows that blue light is scattered more than red light by a factor of (700/400)4 ~= 10.

Dust or Molecules?

Tyndall and Rayleigh thought that the blue colour of the sky must be due to small particles of dust and droplets of water vapor in the atmosphere. Even today, people sometimes incorrectly say that this is the case. Later scientists realized that if this were true, there would be more variation of sky color with humidity or haze conditions than was actually observed, so they supposed correctly that the molecules of oxygen and nitrogen in the air are sufficient to account for the scattering. The case was finally settled by Einstein in 1911, who calculated the detailed formula for the scattering of light from molecules; and this was found to be in agreement with experiment. He was even able to use the calculation as a further verification of Avogadro's number when compared with observation. The molecules are able to scatter light because the electromagnetic field of the light waves induces electric dipole moments in the molecules.

Why not Violet?

If shorter wavelengths are scattered most strongly, then there is a puzzle as to why the sky does not appear violet, the color with the shortest visible wavelength. The spectrum of light emission from the sun is not constant at all wavelengths, and additionally is absorbed by the high atmosphere, so there is less violet in the light. Our eyes are also less sensitive to violet. That's part of the answer; yet a rainbow shows that there remains a significant amount of visible light colored indigo and violet beyond the blue. The rest of the answer to this puzzle lies in the way our vision works. We have three types of color receptors, or cones, in our retina. They are called red, blue and green because they respond most strongly to light at those wavelengths. As they are stimulated in different proportions, our visual system constructs the colors we see.

Response curves for the three types of cone in the human eye

When we look up at the sky, the red cones respond to the small amount of scattered red light, but also less strongly to orange and yellow wavelengths. The green cones respond to yellow and the more strongly-scattered green and green-blue wavelengths. The blue cones are stimulated by colors near blue wavelengths which are very strongly scattered. If there were no indigo and violet in the spectrum, the sky would appear blue with a slight green tinge. However, the most strongly scattered indigo and violet wavelengths stimulate the red cones slightly as well as the blue, which is why these colors appear blue with an added red tinge. The net effect is that the red and green cones are stimulated about equally by the light from the sky, while the blue is stimulated more strongly. This combination accounts for the pale sky blue color. It may not be a coincidence that our vision is adjusted to see the sky as a pure hue. We have evolved to fit in with our environment; and the ability to separate natural colors most clearly is probably a survival advantage.

A multi-coloured sunset over the Firth of Forth in Scotland.


When the air is clear the sunset will appear yellow, because the light from the sun has passed a long distance through air and some of the blue light has been scattered away. If the air is polluted with small particles, natural or otherwise, the sunset will be more red. Sunsets over the sea may also be orange, due to salt particles in the air, which are effective Tyndall scatterers. The sky around the sun is seen reddened, as well as the light coming directly from the sun. This is because all light is scattered relatively well through small angles--but blue light is then more likely to be scattered twice or more over the greater distances, leaving the yellow, red and orange colors.

A blue haze over the mountains of Les Vosges in France.

Blue Haze and Blue Moon

Clouds and dust haze appear white because they consist of particles larger than the wavelengths of light, which scatter all wavelengths equally (Mie scattering). But sometimes there might be other particles in the air that are much smaller. Some mountainous regions are famous for their blue haze. Aerosols of trepans from the vegetation react with ozone in the atmosphere to form small particles about 200 nm across, and these particles scatter the blue light. A forest fire or volcanic eruption may occasionally fill the atmosphere with fine particles of 500-800 nm across, being the right size to scatter red light. This gives the opposite to the usual Tyndall effect, and may cause the moon to have a blue tinge since the red light has been scattered out. This is a very rare phenomenon--occurring literally once in a blue moon.


The Tyndall effect is responsible for some other blue coloration's in nature: such as blue eyes, the opalescence of some gem stones, and the color in the blue jay's wing. The colors can vary according to the size of the scattering particles. When a fluid is near its critical temperature and pressure, tiny density fluctuations are responsible for a blue coloration known as critical opalescence. People have also copied these natural effects by making ornamental glasses impregnated with particles, to give the glass a blue sheen. But not all blue coloring in nature is caused by scattering. Light under the sea is blue because water absorbs longer wavelength of light through distances over about 20 meters. When viewed from the beach, the sea is also blue because it reflects the sky, of course. Some birds and butterflies get their blue colorations by diffraction effects.



1.Thanks to all may Friends THE BIG FAMILY OF SNBI 1'st Generation, You are The best Friends Ever Life in My Memories


"Tak kan Kuhapus kenangan indah bersama kalian karena inilah pengalaman yang berharga dan tak terlupakan selama perjalanan hidpuku Kalianlah Inspirasi Utama Ku Love U all Forgiveness all my mistakes, and If I ever Destroyed Harmony in Your life Give me apologies "

Up In The Sky

When you are down
And you want to get high,
Just take a good look
Up in the sky.

What you will see
Are the stars above,
And all you need
Is to proclaim your love.

Who you will find
And see so clear,
Are friends in mind
You want to hold near.

Whenever you need them
Just look up high,
Call their name
And see them fly.

Every friend you meet
Owns a star
And you can see them
No matter how far.

Whenever you are down
And want to get high,
Just take a good look
Up in the sky.


Tidak lupa kepada Forum NASA bagi para Pendidik, Himpunan Mahasiswa Fisika Bumi Siliwangi, Tim Astronomi Cakrawala Universitas pendidikan Indonesia, Himastron ITB serta Himafis ITB terimakasih banyak atas kesempatannya yang telah diberikan kepada penulis dalam memberikan bahan dan masukan yang sangat berharga semoga semangat dan keikhlasan serta kesabaran selalu memayungi kita semua, amin.

Further Reading

1. Herzberg, G. Infrared and Raman Spectra; D. Van Nostrand: Princeton, 1945; p. 281.
2. Curcio, J. A.; Petty, C. C. J. Chem. Phys. 1951, 41, 302.
3. Marechal, Y. Hydrogen-Bonded Liquids; Dore J. C.; Teixeira, J. Eds.; NATO ASI Series, Vol. 329, 1989, p.237.
4. Tursi, A. J., Nixon, E. R. J. Chem. Phys. 1970, 52,1521.

See also


  1. ^ Tyndall, John (December 1868). "On the Blue Colour of the Sky, the Polarization of Skylight, and on the Polarization of Light by Cloudy Matter Generally". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 17: pp. 223–233. doi:10.1098/rspl.1868.0033,
  2. ^ Rayleigh, Lord (June 1871). "On the scattering of light by small particles". Philosophical Magazine 41, 275: pp. 447–451.
  3. ^ Watson, JG (June 2002). "Visibility: Science and Regulation". J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc 52: pp. 628–713, Retrieved on 19 April 2007.
  4. ^ Why is the sky Blue?
  5. ^ Why is the sky bluer on top than at the horizon
  6. ^ eSim 2008 (May 20th - 22nd, 2008) General Sky Standard Defining Luminance DistributionsPDF (710 KiB)

External links