Saturday, 6 July 2013

Kuliah Umum: Impian Manusia Menuju Planet Mars

Curiosity on Mars - ACSER Distinguished Guest Lecture at UNSW 

Dr. René Fradet is the Deputy Director, Engineering and Science Directorate at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. From 2009 through 2010, René was the Flight System Manager for the Mars Sample Laboratory (MSL) where he was responsible for the overall development of the MSL Flight System.

Before assuming his present leadership post at JPL, René was the founder, president and CEO of Alliance Spacesystems, also of Pasadena. René's company built a wide range of space mechatronic systems, most notably the Robot Arm for Curiosity, as well as the robot arms for the Phoenix lander and the earlier Spirit and Opportunity rovers.

Opportunity and its arm are still operational on Mars after almost ten years. Before founding Alliance, René was at JPL as the Deputy Spacecraft Manager on the New Millennium Program Deep Space One (DS1) Project. Deep Space One traveled far beyond Earth's orbit, visited both an asteroid and a comet, and was the first spacecraft to use an ion propulsion main engine rather than chemical propulsion for deep space missions. René was the co-leader responsible for the management of DS1 design, development and test, and was the chief Mechanical Engineer responsible for all associated mechanical activities.

NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission set down a large, mobile laboratory - the rover Curiosity - at Gale Crater, using precision landing technology that makes many of Mars' most intriguing regions viable destinations for the first time. During the 23 months after landing, Curiosity will analyse dozens of samples drilled from rocks or scooped from the ground as it explores with greater range than any previous Mars rover.

Curiosity carries the most advanced payload of scientific gear ever used on Mars' surface, a payload more than 10 times as massive as those of earlier Mars rovers. Its assignment: Investigate whether conditions have been favourable for microbial life and for preserving clues in the rocks about possible past life.

This talk will survey the tremendous successes of Curiosity so far, from landing on Mars to photographing, sampling and inspecting her surface. Some of the challenges facing Curiosity in the future include robotically drilling on the surface of Mars. This will be the first time since the Apollo program that humanity has drilled rocks on a non-Earth body, and the first time ever for a robot explorer.

1. University of New South Wales, Sydney Australia
2. Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4. California Institute of Technology
5. [The Australian Centre for Space Engineering Research]

Memupuk Kerjasama IPTEK Antariksa Antar Bangsa

The International Space Station program is tied together by a complex set of legal, political and financial agreements between the fifteen nations involved in the project, governing ownership of the various components, rights to crewing and utilisation, and responsibilities for crew rotation and station resupply.

These agreements tie together the five space agencies and their respective International Space Station Programs and govern how they interact with each other on a daily basis to maintain station operations, from traffic control of spacecraft to and from the station, to utilization of space and crew time.  

See also

The International Space Station (ISS) is a habitable artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. It follows the Salyut, Almaz, Skylab and Mir stations as the ninth space station to be inhabited. The ISS is a modular structure whose first component was launched in 1998. Now the largest artificial body in orbit, it can often be seen at the appropriate time with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other components. ISS components have been launched by American Space Shuttles as well as Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets.

The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and other fields. The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars

Swiss-cheese model of the cosmos is full of holes

Swiss-cheese model of the cosmos is full of holes

Last year, a team suggested that if the universe was populated by giant voids, it would do away with the need for dark energy, but now that seems unlikely
The ISS programme is a joint project among five participating space agencies: NASA, the Russian Federal Space Agency, JAXA, ESA, and CSA. The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station is divided into two sections, the Russian orbital segment (ROS) and the United States orbital segment (USOS), which is shared by many nations. The ISS is maintained at an orbital altitude of between 330 km (205 mi) and 435 km (270 mi). It completes 15.7 orbits per day. 

The ISS is funded until 2020, and may operate until 2028. The Russian Federal Space Agency (RSA/RKA) has proposed using ISS to commission modules for a new space station, called OPSEK, before the remainder of the ISS is de-orbited.

The Station simplifies individual experiments by eliminating the need for separate rocket launches and research staff. The primary fields of research include Astrobiology, astronomy, human research including space medicine and life sciences, physical sciences, materials science, space weather and weather on Earth (meteorology). 

Scientists on Earth have access to the crew's data and can modify experiments or launch new ones, benefits generally unavailable on unmanned spacecraft. 

Crews fly expeditions of several months duration, providing approximately 160 man-hours a week of labour with a crew of 6.