Nobel Fisika Indonesia
Central for Research and Development for Winning
Nobel Prize in Physics at Indonesia
Nobel Fisika Indonesia
(Belajar Kepada Profesor Franck & Hertz)
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"
Titles, data and places given above refer to the time of the award.
|1/2 of the prize||1/2 of the prize|
Photos: Copyright © The Nobel Foundation
|Gustav Ludwig Hertz|
|Born||22 July 1887|
Free Hanseatic city of Hamburg,German Empire
|Died||30 October 1975 (aged 88)|
East Berlin, East Germany
|Alma mater||Humboldt University of Berlin|
|Doctoral advisor||Heinrich Rubens|
|Known for||Franck-Hertz experiment|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Physics (1925)|
Father of Carl Hellmuth Hertz
Gustav Ludwig Hertz (22 July 1887 – 30 October 1975) was a German experimental physicist and Nobel Prize winner, and a nephew of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.
Hertz was born in Hamburg and studied at the Georg-August University of Göttingen(1906-1907), the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich (1907-1908), and theHumboldt University of Berlin (1908-1911). He received his doctorate in 1911 underHeinrich Leopold Rubens.
From 1911 to 1914, Hertz was an assistant to Rubens at the University of Berlin. It was during this time that Hertz and James Franck performed experiments on inelastic electron collisions in gases, known as the Franck–Hertz experiments, and for which they received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1925.
During World War I, Hertz served in the military from 1914. He was seriously wounded in 1915. In 1917, he returned to the University of Berlin as a Privatdozent. In 1920, he took a job as a research physicist at the Philips Incandescent Lamp Factory in Eindhoven, which he held until 1925.
In 1925, Hertz became ordinarius professor and director of the Physics Institute of the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg. In 1928 he became ordinarius professor of experimental physics and director of the Physics Institute of the Berlin Technische Hochschule (BTH) inBerlin-Charlottenburg. While there, he developed an isotope separation technique via gaseous diffusion. Since Hertz was an officer during World War I, he was temporarily protected from National Socialist policies and the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, but eventually the policies and laws became more stringent, and at the end of 1934, he was forced to resign his position at BTH, as he was classified as a “second degree part-Jew”. He then took a position at Siemens, as director of Research Laboratory II. While there, he continued his work on atomic physics and ultrasound, but he eventually discontinued his work on isotope separation. He held this position until he departed for the Soviet Union in 1945.
|Born||26 August 1882|
Hamburg, German Empire
|Died||21 May 1964 (aged 81)|
Göttingen, West Germany
|Institutions||University of Berlin|
University of Göttingen
Johns Hopkins University
University of Chicago
|Alma mater||University of Heidelberg|
University of Berlin
|Doctoral advisor||Emil Gabriel Warburg|
|Doctoral students||Wilhelm Hanle|
Arthur R. von Hippel
|Known for||Franck-Condon principle|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize for Physics (1925)|
James Franck (26 August 1882 – 21 May 1964) was a Nobel laureate.
Franck was born to Jacob Franck and Rebecca Nachum Drucker. Franck completed his Ph.D. in 1906 and received his venia legendi, or Habilitation, for physics in 1911, both at the University of Berlin, where he lectured and taught until 1918, having reached the position of extraordinarius professor. After World War I, in which he served and was awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class, Franck became the Head of the Physics Division of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft for Physical Chemistry. In 1920, Franck became ordinarius professor of experimental physics and Director of the Second Institute for Experimental Physics at the University of Göttingen. While there he worked on quantum physics with Max Born, who was Director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics.
In 1925, Franck received the Nobel Prize in Physics, mostly for his work in 1912-1914, which included the Franck-Hertz experiment, an important confirmation of the Bohr model of the atom.
In 1933, after the Nazis came to power, Franck, being a Jew, decided to leave his post in Germany and continued his research in the United States, first at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and then, after a year in Denmark, in Chicago. It was there that he became involved in the Manhattan Project during World War II; he was Director of the Chemistry Division of the Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago. He was also the chairman of the Committee on Political and Social Problems regarding the atomic bomb; the committee consisted of himself and other scientists at the Met Lab, including Donald J. Hughes, J. J. Nickson, Eugene Rabinowitch, Glenn T. Seaborg, J. C. Stearns and Leó Szilárd. The committee is best known for the compilation of the Franck Report, finished on 11 June 1945, which recommended not to use the atomic bombs on the Japanese cities, based on the problems resulting from such a military application.
When Nazi Germany invaded Denmark in World War II, the Hungarian chemist George de Hevesy dissolved the gold Nobel Prizes of Max von Laue and James Franck in aqua regia to prevent the Nazis from stealing them. He placed the resulting solution on a shelf in his laboratory at the Niels Bohr Institute. After the war, he returned to find the solution undisturbed and precipitated the gold out of the acid. The Nobel Society then recast the Nobel Prizes using the original gold.
2. Nobel Prize Org.
Ucapan Terima Kasih:
Ucapan Terima Kasih:
1. DEPDIKNAS Republik Indonesia
2. Kementrian Riset dan Teknologi Indonesia
3. Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI)
4. Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia
5. Tim Olimpiade Fisika Indonesia
Disusun Ulang Oleh:
Pendidikan Fisika, FPMIPA, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
Follower Open Course Ware at MIT-Harvard University, USA.
Semoga Bermanfaat dan Terima Kasih