Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary subatomic constituents of matter and radiation, and their interactions. The field is also called high energy physics, because many elementary particles do not occur under ambient conditions on Earth. They can only be created artificially during high energy collisions with other particles in particle accelerators.
Particle physics has evolved out of its parent field of nuclear physics and is typically still taught in close association with it. Scientific research in this area has produced a long list of particles.
CERN atau dalam bahasa Indonesia: Organisasi Eropa untuk Riset Nuklir (singkatan dari bahasa Perancis: Organisation Européene pour la Recherche Nucléaire, bahasa Inggris: European Organization for Nuclear Research) adalah sebuah kompleks laboratorium percepatan partikel terbesar di dunia yang terletak di perbatasan antara Perancis dan Swis, persis di sebelah barat Jenewa.
Konvensi yang menyetujui organsisasi ini ditanda tangani pada 29 September 1954. Dari 12 anggota, pada 2005 menjadi 20 negara anggota. Akronim CERN berasal dari Conseil Européene pour la Recherche Nucléaire, sebuah dewan yang didirikan untuk mendiskusikan pembangunan fasilitas penelitian fisika nuklir di Eropa.
Fungsi utamanya untuk menyediakan percepatan partikel yang dibutuhkan untuk riset dan banyak eksperimen fisika energi tinggi yang telah banyak dilakukan di sini oleh kerja sama internasional untuk memanfaatkannya. Lokasi utama di Meyrin juga memiliki pusat komputer besar yang memiliki fasilitas prosesi data yang kuat, utamanya untuk eksperimen dalam analisis data, dan untuk menyediakan data untuk para peneliti dimanapun mereka berada situs ini telah menjadi penghubung WAN utama.
Pada 2005 CERN mempekerjakan hampir 3000 orang. 7931 ilmuwan dan insinyur (mewakili 500 universitas dan 80 kewarganegaraan), kira-kira setengahnya adalah komunitas fisika partikel, yang bekerja untuk eksperimen yang dilakukan di CERN ini.
US Laboratories and Technology Centers
DOE's laboratories and technology centers house world-class facilities where cutting-edge research is performed. The facilities, along with their more than 30,000 scientists and engineers, report to DOE Program offices (pdf - 27kb).
The Ames Laboratory is a national center for the synthesis, analysis, and engineering of rare-earth metals and their compounds. Ames conducts fundamental research in the physical, chemical, and mathematical sciences associated with energy generation and storage.
Argonne National Laboratory
The Argonne National Laboratory is one of the Department of Energy's largest multidisciplinary research centers. Argonne research falls into five broad categories: basic research, scientific facilities, energy resources programs, environmental management and National security.
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security and builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers.
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory advances the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter and energy by providing leadership and resources for qualified researchers to conduct basic research at the frontiers of high energy physics and related disciplines.
Idaho National Laboratory
The Idaho National Laboratory is a science-based, applied engineering national laboratory dedicated to supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's missions in environment, energy, science and national defense.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducts unclassified research across a wide range of scientific disciplines with key efforts in fundamental studies of the universe; quantitative biology; nanoscience; new energy systems and environmental solutions; and the use of integrated computing as a tool for discovery.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory founded in September 1952 as a second nuclear weapons design laboratory to promote innovation in the design of our nation's nuclear stockpile through creative science and engineering.
Los Alamos National Laboratory
The Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the National Nuclear Security Administration, contributes to meeting the nation's nuclear deterrence capability and other security needs.
National Energy Technology Laboratory
The National Energy Technology Laboratory assures that U.S. fossil energy resources can meet increasing demand for affordable energy without compromising the quality of life for future generations of Americans.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory develops renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices, advances related science and engineering, and transfers knowledge and innovations to address the nation's energy and environmental goals.
New Brunswick Laboratory
The New Brunswick Laboratory is the Federal government's Nuclear Materials Measurements and Reference Materials Laboratory and the National Certifying Authority for nuclear reference materials and measurement calibration standards
Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education is a U.S. Department of Energy facility focusing on scientific initiatives to research health risks from occupational hazards, assess environmental cleanup, respond to radiation medical emergencies, support national security and emergency preparedness, and educate the next generation of scientists.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a multiprogram science and technology laboratory conducting basic and applied research and development to create scientific knowledge and technological solutions that strengthen the nation's leadership in key areas of science; increase the availability of clean, abundant energy; restore and protect the environment; and contribute to national security.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory delivers science-based solutions to the Department of Energy's major challenges of expanding energy, ensuring national security, and advancing mission-driven science through outstanding staff and R&D capabilities, excellent operations, and high-value partnerships.
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is a national center dedicated to plasma and fusion science with a leading international role in developing the theoretical, experimental, and technology innovations needed to make fusion practical and affordable.
Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory
The Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory provides the Department of Energy a reference laboratory to conduct key measurement quality assurance programs and provides technical support and quality assurance metrology that is directly traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Sandia National Laboratories
The Sandia National Laboratories develop science-based technologies that support national security through science and technology, people, infrastructure, and partnerships.
Savannah River Ecology Laboratory
The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory provides an independent evaluation of the ecological effects of DOE's Savannah River Site operations through a program of ecological research, education, and outreach.
Savannah River National Laboratory
The Savannah River National Laboratory is recognized as a world-class center of excellence for the development and application of unique and innovative science and technology solutions.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a laboratory dedicated to the design, construction and operation of state-of-the-art electron accelerators and related experimental facilities for use in high-energy physics and synchrotron radiation research.
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is a national user facility for nuclear science using continuous beams of high-energy electrons to discover the underlying quark and gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei.
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